List of abbreviations.
2 Orthography and phonology.
3 The vowels in Germanic.
I Primitive Germanic (§§1–4).
II Vowel harmony (§§5–12).
III Loss of nasals and compensatory lengthening (§§13–15).
IV Diphthongization (§§16–19).
V Infl uence of */z/ (§§20–1).
VI Long vowels (§§22–6).
VII Unstressed vowels (§§27–33).
VIII Raising of back vowels (§34).
4 The consonants in Germanic.
I Primitive Germanic (§§1–3).
II Verner’s Law (§§4–5).
III Germanic approximants (§§6–9).
IV Consonant loss (§10).
V West Germanic gemination (§§11–14).
VI Miscellanea (§§15–19).
5 Old English vowels.
I First fronting and associated changes (§§3–15).
II Breaking (§§16–34).
III Restoration of A (§§35–40).
IV Lowering of second elements of diphthongs (§§41–6).
V Palatal diphthongization (§§47–73).
VI I-umlaut (§§74–86).
VII Second fronting (§§87–92).
VIII Anglian smoothing (§§93–102).
IX Back umlaut (§§103–12).
X Palatal umlaut (§§113–18).
XI Palatal monophthongization (§§119–23).
XII Compensatory lengthening (§§124–30).
XIII Hiatus (§§131–54).
XIV Merger of /io/ and /eo/ (§§155–62).
XV West Saxon developments of high front vowels and diphthongs (§§163–75).
XVI The infl uence of /w/ (§§176–87).
XVII The development of Kentish front vowels (§§188–96).
XVIII Changes in quantity (§§197–205).
XIX Monophthongization of diphthongs (§§206–14).
XX Merger of /æ/ and /w/ (§§215–16).
6 Unstressed vowels.
I First fronting and associated changes (§§2–6).
II Breaking, palatal diphthongization, i-umlaut, and back umlaut (§§7–12).
III Syncope and apocope (§§13–25).
IV Shortening (§§26–33).
V Epenthesis and syllabifi cation (§§34–45).
VI Mergers of unstressed vowels (§§46–62).
VII Unstressed medial vowels (§§63–71).
7 Old English consonants.
I Dissimilation (§§4–14) .
II Palatalization and assibilation (§§15–43).
III Development of fricatives (i): lenition (§§44–53).
IV Development of fricatives (ii): voicing and devoicing (§§54–68).
V Post-vocalic approximants (§§69–76).
VI Consonant clusters (§§77–97).
VII Loss of fi nal nasals (§§98–100).
VIII Late Old English changes (§§101–3).