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交換代數(簡體書)
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目次

It has seemed to me for a long time that commutative algebra is best practiced with knowledge of the geometric ideas that played a great role in its formation: in short, with a view toward algebraic geometry. Most texts on commutative algebra adhere to the tradition that says a subject should be purified until it references nothing outside itself. There are good reasons for cultivating this style; it leads to generality, elegance, and brevity, three cardinal virtues. But it seems to me unnecessary and undesirable to banish, on these grounds, the motivating and fructifying ideas on which the discipline is based.本書是Springer《Graduate Texts in Mathematics》系列叢書第150卷。為了更好的理解交換代數,運用幾何的觀點去研究交換代數,也就是代數幾何學觀點,是本書的一大特色。
作者從基本觀點――局部化以及自分解理論出發,通過對維數理論、微分理論、同調方法、自由解理論和對偶性的研究,強調該理論的出發點以及它們與數學其他部分的聯繫,練習中大量的引用強化了對該理論的理解。本書的還專門運用了一章來講述Grobner基本觀點以及基於這個關點的對交換代數以及代數幾何很有建設性的方法。
讀者對象:本書適於數學專業以及對交換代數和代數幾何感性趣的初學者和科研人員.
目次:(一)基本觀點:交換代數基礎;局部化;原始分解;積分相依和零點定理;Artin-Rees引理;完備性與Hensel引理;(二)維數理論:維數理論引入;維數理論基本定義;理想定理和參數系;維數與餘維數;維數與Hilbert-Samuel多項式; 仿射環維數; 消除理論;Grobner基; 微分模型;(三)同調理論:正則序列和Koszul複變量;深度,餘微數與Cohen-Macaulay環;局部環同調理論;自由解與Fitting不變量;對偶性,典範模數和Gorenstein環.
Introduction
Advice for the Beginner
Information for the Expert
Prerequisites
Sources
Courses
Acknowledgements

0 Elementary Definitions
0.1 Rings and Ideals
0.2 Unique Factorization
0.3 Modules

I Basic Constructions
1 Roots of Commutative Algebra
1.1 Number Theory
1.2 Algebraic Curves and Fhnction Theory
1.3 Invariant Theory
1.4 The Basis Theorem
1.5 Graded Rings
1.6 Algebra and Geometry: The Nullstellensatz
1.7 Geometric Invariant Theory
1.8 Projective Varieties
1.9 Hilbert Functions and Polynomials
1.10 Free Resolutions and the Syzygy Theorem
1.11 Exercises

2 Localization
2.1 Fractions
2.2 Horn and Tensor
2.3 The Construction of Primes
2.4 Rings and Modules of Finite Length
2.5 Products of Domains
2.6 Exercises

3 Associated Primes and Primary Decomposition
3.1 Associated Primes
3.2 Prime Avoidance
3.3 Primary Decomposition
3.4 Primary Decomposition and Factoriality
3.5 Primary Decomposition in the Graded Case
3.6 Extracting Information from Primary Decomposition
3.7 Why Primary Decomposition Is Not Unique
3.8 Geometric Interpretation of Primary Decomposition
3.9 Symbolic Powers and Functions Vanishing to High Order
3.10 Exercises

4 Integral Dependence and the Nullstellensatz
4.1 The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem and Nakayamas Lemma
4.2 Normal Domains and the Normalization Process
4.3 Normalization in the Analytic Case
4.4 Primes in an Integral Extension
4.5 The Nullstellensatz
4.6 Exercises

5 Filtrations and the Artin-Rees Lemma
5.1 Associated Graded Rings and Modules
5.2 The Blowup Algebra
5.3 The Krull Intersection Theorem
5.4 The Tangent Cone
5.5 Exercises

6 Flat Families
6.1 Elementary Examples
6.2 Introduction to Tor
6.3 Criteria for Flatness
6.4 The Local Criterion for Flatness
6.5 The Rees Algebra
6.6 Exercises

7 Completions and Hensels Lemma
7.1 Examples and Definitions
7.2 The Utility of Completions
7.3 Lifting Idempotents
7.4 Cohen Structure Theory and Coefficient Fields
7.5 Basic Properties of Completion
7.6 Maps from Power Series Rings
7.7 Exercises

II Dimension Theory
8 Introduction to Dimension Theory
8.1 Axioms for Dimension
8.2 Other Characterizations of Dimension Fundamental Definitions of Dimension Theory
9.1 Dimension Zero
9.2 Exercises

10 The Principal Ideal Theorem and Systems of Parameters
10.1 Systems of Parameters and Ideals of Finite Colength
10.2 Dimension of Base and Fiber
10.3 Regular Local Rings
10.4 Exercises

11 Dimension and Codimension One
11.1 Discrete Valuation Rings
11.2 Normal Rings and Serres Criterion
11.3 Invertible Modules
11.4 Unique Factorization of Codimension-One Ideals
11.5 Divisors and Multiplicities
11.6 Multiplicity of Principal Ideals
11.7 Exercises

12 Dimension and Hilbert-Samuel Polynomials
12.1 Hilbert-Samuel Functions
12.2 Exercises

13 The Dimension of Affine Rings
13.1 Noether Normalization
13.2 The Nullstellensatz
13.3 Finiteness of the Integral Closure
13.4 Exercises

14 Elimination Theory, Generic Freeness, and the Dimension of Fibers
14.1 Elimination Theory
14.2 Generic Preeness
14.3 The Dimension of Fibers
14.4 Exercises

15 GrSbner Bases
15.1 Monomials and Terms
15.2 Monomial Orders
15.3 The Division Algorithm
15.4 Gr5bner Bases
15.5 Syzygies
15.6 History of Gr5bner Bases
15.7 A Property of Reverse Lexicographic Order
15.8 Gr5bner Bases and Flat Families
15.9 Generic Initial Ideals
15.10 Applications
15.11 Exercises
15.12 Appendix: Some Computer Algebra Projects

16 Modules of Differentials
16.1 Computation of Differentials
16.2 Differentials and the Cotangent Bundle
16.3 Colimits and Localization
16.4 Tangent Vector Fields and Infinitesimal Morphisms
16.5 Differentials and Field Extensions
16.6 Jacobian Criterion for Regularity
16.7 Smoothness and Generic Smoothness
16.8 Appendix: Another Construction of Kahler Differentials
16.9 Exercises

III Homological Methods
17 Regular Sequences and the Koszul Complex
17.1 Koszul Complexes of Lengths I and 2
17.2 Koszul Complexes in General
17.3 Building the Koszul Complex from Parts
17.4 Duality and Homotopies
17.5 The Koszul Complex and the Cotangent Bundle of Projective Space
17.6 Exercises

18 Depth, Codimension, and Cohen-Macaulay Rings
18.1 Depth
18.2 Cohen-Macaulay Rings
18.3 Proving Primeness with Serres Criterion
18.4 Flatness and Depth
18.5 Some Examples
18.6 Exercises

19 Homological Theory of Regular Local Rings
19.1 Projective Dimension and Minimal Resolutions
19.2 Global Dimension and the Syzygy Theorem
19.3 Depth and Projective Dimension: The Auslander-Buchsbaum Formula
19.4 Stably Free Modules and Factoriality of Regular Local Rings
19.5 Exercises

20 Free Resolutions and Fitting Invariants
20.1 The Uniqueness of Free Resolutions
20.2 Fitting Ideals
20.3 What Makes a Complex Exact?
20.4 The Hilbert-Burch Theorem
20.5 Castelnuovo-Mumford Regularity
20.6 Exercises

21 Duality, Canonical Modules, and Gorenstein Rings
21.1 Duality for Modules of Finite Length
21.2 Zero-Dimensional Gorenstein Rings
21.3 Canonical Modules and Gorenstein Rings in Higher Dimension
21.4 Maximal Cohen-Macaulay Modules
21.5 Modules of Finite Injective Dimension
21.6 Uniqueness and (Often) Existence
21.7 Localization and Completion of the Canonical Module
21.8 Complete Intersections and Other Gorenstein Rings
21.9 Duality for Maximal Cohen-Macaulay Modules
21.10 Linkage
21.11 Duality in the Graded Case
21.12 Exercises
Appendix 1 Field Theory
A1.1 Transcendence Degree
A1.2 Separability
A1.3 p-Bases
Appendix 2 Multilinear Algebra
A2.1 Introduction
A2.2 Tensor Products
A2.3 Symmetric and Exterior Algebras
A2.4 Coalgebra Structures and Divided Powers
A2.5 Schur Functors
A2.6 Complexes Constructed by Multilinear Algebra
Appendix 3 Homological Algebra
A3.1 Introduction
Part I: Resolutions and Derived Functors
A3.2 Free and Projective Modules
A3.3 Free and Projective Resolutions
A3.4 Injective Modules and Resolutions
A3.5 Basic Constructions with Complexes
A3.6 Maps and Homotopies of Complexes
A3.7 Exact Sequences of Complexes
A3.8 The Long Exact Sequence in Homology
A3.9 Derived Functors
A3.10 Tor
A3.11 Ext
Part II: From Mapping Cones to Spectral Sequences
A3.12 The Mapping Cone and Double Complexes
A3.13 Spectral Sequences
A3.14 Derived Categories
Appendix 4 A Sketch of Local Cohomology
A4.1 Local Cohomology and Global Cohomology
A4.2 Local Duality
A4.3 Depth and Dimension
Appendix 5 Category Theory
A5.1 Categories, Functors, and Natural Transformations
A5.2 Adjoint Functors
A5.3 Representable Functors and Yonedas Lemma
Appendix 6 Limits and Colimits
A6.1 Colimits in the Category of Modules
A6.2 Flat Modules as Colimits of Free Modules
A6.3 Colimits in the Category of Commutative Algebras
A6.4 Exercises
Appendix 7 Where Next?
Hints and Solutions for Selected Exercises
References
Index of Notation
Index

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