This book presents a much-needed review of commercial closures for bottles and jars used in America prior to World War II. Archaeological attention to commercial closures has been rather limited. This is surprising given that data derived from bottles and jars pertain to a wide range of studies, including chronological control, trade, site functions, and methods of manufacture. Closures are an integral part of these studies, becoming particularly important after a spectacular variety of metal and glass caps in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This volume<br>-provides a comprehensive review, including detailed closure definitions, as well as glass finishes;<br>-discusses the history of the development and impact of the hermetic seal in commercial closures;<br>-will appeal to students, professionals, and collectors studying this common historic artifact class.