With HIV becoming the leading cause of infectious-disease mortality in Mainland China, this book focuses on tackling HIV/AIDS in the face of rapid political and economic change in China. Featuring contributions by over a dozen leading figures in the field, this book is the go-to text for any student or reader interested in how national and international organizations' are attempting to control this epidemic.The book includes chapters on the epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of HIV, as well as several chapters that discuss in detail specific provincial- and national-level programs to control and treat HIV. It chronicles the Chinese government's amazing about-face, as it replaced underfunded, non-evidence based policy decisions with successful, science-based approaches to disease control and prevention, including the adoption of once controversial needle-exchange programs and the establishment of a national HIV/AIDS data registry. It measures the success of national policy decisions, the implementation of treatment policies, and discusses the difficulty of accessing high-risk communities, including people who inject drugs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men - groups not easy to reach, study, engage in prevention programs, or treatment, for fear of stigmatization and loss of social status. Further, it documents the spread of HIV to other provinces, and the tragedy that befell repeat plasma donors in Henan and other poor provinces, where reused or improperly sterilized lab equipment caused some villages to have epidemic-level incidence rates. This book represents a positive contribution to the field of AIDS research, making vital, new information available to an interested readership.