This book explores the early work and activities of Joan Robinson that focused on economic development within underdeveloped countries, in particular India before independence. By analysing the style of Robinson's thinking and economic analysis, and based on the works of Indian contemporaries, parts of The British Crown and the Indian States previously unattributed to her are seen to exhibit her preoccupation with poverty, backwardness, unemployment, the population problem, international trade, and the role of the state. Through keeping in mind Robinson's later work, the development of her ideas can be reflected upon, alongside critical perspectives. It also reveals the beginnings of her role as a public intellectual.This book aims to shed new light on Joan Robinson's work on development and to provide insight to an overlooked part of her research. It will be relevant to students and researchers interested in the history of economic thought, development economics and economic history.